In 1933, nazi german authorities aimed to synchronize professional and cultural organizations with nazi ideology and policy gleichschaltung. Just a few months after adolf hitler came to power in nazi germany and a full six years before world war ii, german university students carried. The long and terrifying history of book burning mail online. Book burning united states holocaust memorial museum. On 10 may 1933 thousands of books banned by germanys national socialist regime were tossed into flaming pyres. Who were the initiators for the book burnings in germany. The book burning was led by the german student union and titled action against the ungerman spirit getty.
Their orchestrated book burnings across germany would come to. While book burnings in our time have been acts of sensationalism and symbolism, in the past, torching texts was a tactic used by conquerors to wipe the slate of history clean. The nazis did not burn books that is more fake history. Between 1933 and 1945, nazi germany systematically destroyed an estimated 100 million books throughout occupied europe, an act that was inextricably bound up with the murder of 6 million jews.
The burnings were organized mostly by the students attempting to impress officials in the nazi party, said julie edwards. Enthusiastic crowds witnessed the burning of books by brecht, einstein, freud, mann and remarque, among. Sadly it was university students, the german student union that led the book burnings to show their support of nazism it was the college students and teachers that led the movement of the book burning. Us holocaust memorial museum, courtesy of national archives and records administration, college park, md. Where they burn books, they will also ultimately burn people. May 10, 1933 students and storm troopers on the opera square. The long and terrifying history of bookburning from the puritans to nazi germany. Um exhibit explores nazi book burning, modern censorship local. The nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the german student union the dst to ceremonially burn books in nazi germany and austria in the 1930s. Special focus nazi book burning holocaust encyclopedia article1933. When the american military government opened its libraries in germany, austria, japan, korea, and trieste, its directive laid special emphasis on providing books by writers banned under the. Fahrenheit 451 wanted poster cabarrus county schools. Holocaust survivor herbert zipper recalls the burning of jewish books. A crowd watches thousands of books, considered to be ungerman, burn in opera square in berlin in 1933.
It is tempting to view the symbolic moment as foretelling of what was to follow during 12 years of nazi rule. A member of the sa throws confiscated books into the bonfire during the public burning of ungerman books on the opernplatz in berlin, may 10, 1933. Book burning in nazi germany censorship in the humanities. Joseph goebbels, german propaganda minister, speaks on the night of book burning. Nazi students raided the public libraries and pulled out books by democratic and aavantgarde writers, many of them jews. Book burning project gutenberg selfpublishing ebooks. The purpose of the nazi book burning was to destroy all ideologies that were considered to be ungerman.
Bookburning for all the readily available information about the infamous nazi book burnings, next to nothing is mentioned of a far greater book burning. While the book burning represents a dark chapter in world history, its not restricted to nazi germany. They believe that the book burning would keep the german literature and language from external influences. Lists were made of books that were considered to be subversive to the. The works of jewish authors like albert einstein and. Book burnings especially call to mind images of the nazi bonfires in germany in mayjune 1933. How does the book burning scene in bradburys novel compare andor contrast to the book burning that occured in nazi germany.
Curiously, the idea that the former would lead to the latter was famously predicted more than 100 years before the nazi takeover of germany by german author heinrich heine. By burning and looting libraries and censoring ungerman publications, the nazis aimed to eradicate all traces of jewish culture along with the. Um exhibit explores nazi book burning, modern censorship. The onetime bookburning that did take place in 1933 was done by university students, not the nsdap. May 10 17, 1933 news articles about the nazi book burnings may 11 31, 1933 editorials, opeds, letters to the editor, and political cartoons reacting to the book burnings and nazi suppression of free speech. They then burned them before a large crowd, taking care to ensure wide media coverage. I have seen similar sentiments in connection with amazons blacklisting of holocaust revisionist books, so i am setting the record straight.
Germanys book bonfire umbers hardly count in estimating the book. The nazi book burnings, censorship, and propaganda annaclaire schmiedel individual performance senior division. On may 10, 1933, about 25,000 books were burned by german university students. The mass book burnings marked a turning point in the nazis ideology campaigns. Reports range from an estimate of hundreds to tens of thousands of books burned. On may 10, 1933 student groups at universities across germany carried out a series of book burnings of works that the students and leading nazi party members associated with an ungerman spirit.
The recent controversy over burning the koran in florida on the anniversary of the september 11 attacks on the united states made headlines worldwide. On 10 may, 1933, a particularly barbaric book burning took place at opera square in berlin. On may 10, 1933, german students under the nazi regime burned tens of thousands of books nationwide. How nazis destroyed books in a quest to destroy european. Some of germanys most valuable creative works went up in flames on may 10, 1933. A brief history of book burning, from the printing press to internet archives as long as there have been books, people have burned thembut over the. The german student union with the support and encouragement of their professors organized the first book burnings in 1933. The books targeted for burning were those viewed as being subversive or as representing. In fahrenheit 451, a woman burns with her books, so it seems that bradbury interpreted heines statement literally. Berlin, germany, may 10, 1933, national archives and records administration, accessed.
But there is a long list of burnings that took place after the war. Germany remembers authors of burned books germany news. Wherever books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too. The nazis destroyed tens of millions of books, especially ones on judaism, freemasonry. Nazis bookburning fails to stir berlin, 40,000 watch students fire volumes in a drizzle, but show little enthusias and more see photos. Book burnings in germany, 1933 american experience. The burning of books a hundred years before the advent of hitler, the germanjewish poet, heinrich heine, had declared. April 1933 news articles, editorials, opeds, letters to the editor and political cartoons regarding the german student associations call for action against the ungerman spirit.
On may 10, 1933, university students in 34 university towns across germany burned over 25,000 books. The burning of books and the burning of people are two of the actions for which nazi germany is most infamous. German students, nazis stage nationwide book burnings. Seventy five years ago, the nazis staged what is probably the most infamous of all book burnings. Alfred kantorowicz, the author of the 1944 article library of the burned books, was one of the key leaders instrumental in creating this library. On the anniversary of ceremonial nazi book burnings, germany is hosting a series of events to commemorate those whose works were. Lgbtq institute in germany was burned down by nazis teen. In 1817, german student associations burschenschaften chose the 300th anniversary of luthers 95 theses to. In 1933, university students were on a mission to cleanse germany of jewish intellectual ideas fishburn, 2007. Nazi book burnings last updated april 08, 2020 book burning in berlin, may 1933 examples of books burned by the nazis on display at yad vashem. The may 1933 book burning in nazi germany had a precedent in nineteenth century.914 546 1360 722 1393 1321 481 862 1274 426 1287 1434 184 1589 613 230 995 1592 144 899 1573 1359 1099 229 258 492 976 359 1454 1072 1377